October & India

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Annie Besant (1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933) was a prominent British socialist, theosophist, women’s rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule.
Gandhi Jayanti is a national holiday celebrated in India to mark the occasion of the birthday of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948), the “Father of the Nation“. Though the title is not officially declared, as the Constitution of India does not permit a father of nation, it is mostly conferred to him. The United Nations General Assembly announced on 15 June 2007 that it adopted a resolution which declared that 2 October will be celebrated as the International Day of Non-Violence.

Lal Bahadur Shastri (2 October 1904 – 11 January 1966) was the Prime Minister of the Republic of India and a leader of the Indian National Congress party.

The Text has been taken from following wiki pages:

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gandhi_Jayanti
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annie_Besant
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahatma_Gandhi
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lal_Bahadur_Shastri
More resources to consult: 

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, FRS

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Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, FRS
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, FRS

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, FRS (7 November 1888 – 21 November 1970) was an Indian physicist whose work was influential in the growth of science. He was the recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930 for the discovery that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes in wavelength. This phenomenon is now called Raman scattering and is the result of the Raman effect.

The Raman papers archive curated by Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, India. C.V. Raman and his work

Read more at ACS
the-raman-effect-commemorative-booklet
Raman Effect as the Chemist’s Tool

This article from wikipedia: Read more at wikipedia

Scenario of Indian science

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Some selected articles on Indian research scenario:

Chemistry: 
Chemistry is central science. This article describe current state of research and teaching in India.
Chemistry in India: unlocking the potential. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 114 – 117
Read it at  DST, India  Wiley Readcube

Science:

Basic Science in India: From Education to Research, Nature Network
Research output  Changing scenario of Indian science  Indian R&D Scenario by AV Ramarao

The Organic Reactions Wiki

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 Organic Reactions A comprehensive resource which provides information about the
most important and useful synthetic reactions, organized
primarily by reaction type. It contains mechanism, scope, and limitations of reactions for each reaction type. 

Based on this large work, there is freely accessible wiki which provides basic information about a reaction published in this collection. this can be accessed at http://organicreactions.org/index.php/Welcome_to_the_Organic_Reactions_Wiki_Home_Page

IYC 2011 : Marie Skłodowska–Curie

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P chemistry blue
The ultimate goal of science is to understand the natural phenomenons and use them for mankind. There is no need to elaborate importance of chemical sciences in society. IYC 2011 gives an opportunity to remember contributions which ultimately changed the world. “Chemistry is often central, with principles and discoveries that enable work in other subjects,”

Marie Skłodowska–Curie

Both women and men have made significant contributions to chemistry. Marie Curie is probably the best-known woman in science. She was the first woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize, first person to win Nobel Prizes in two different scientific disciplines (Nobel Laureate: 1903 in Physics and 1911  in Chemistry). And also, first famous woman scientist in the modern world.  “Mother of Modern Physics” — pioneer in research about . She coined the word “radioactivity” . She was first woman awarded a Ph.D. in research science in Europe, first woman professor at the Sorbonne. She discovered and isolated polonium and radium, and established the nature of radiation and beta rays. Element 96 Curium (Cm) was named in her and Pierre’s honour.

Notes, References and sources: 

  1. People who have won a Nobel Prize twice include:
    • Maria Sklodowska-Curie (1903 and 1911, for discovery of radioactivity (physics) and later for isolating pure radium (chemistry))
    • John Bardeen (1956 and 1972, for invention of the transistor (physics) and for coming up with the theory of superconductivity(physics))
    • Linus Pauling (1954 and 1962, for research into the chemical bond in terms of complex substances (chemistry) and for anti-nuclear activism (peace))
    • Frederick Sanger (1958 and 1980, for discovering the structure of the insulin molecule (chemistry) and inventing a method to determine base sequences in DNA (chemistry))
    1. http://www.mlahanas.de/Physics/Bios/MarieCurie.html 
    2. Nobel Prize | Marie Curie | Alfred Nobel | Abel Prize | Fields Medal |The Prize’s Right | Gold Medal 
    3. Madame Curie: A Biography, by Eve Curie, ISBN 0306810387
    4. Marie Curie: A Life, by Susan Quinn, ISBN 0201887940
    5. Obsessive Genius: The Inner World of Marie Curie, by Barbara Goldsmith, ISBN 0393051374

    Book Review : Textbook Of Environmental Studies For Ugc

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    Text Book on Environmental Studies
    This book is a part of initiative taken up by UGC and introduces formal study of the environment in our academic curriculum.Considering the deteriorating state of the environment, and as per direction of  the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India, the UGC introduced a basic course on Environmental Studies for undergraduate education.

    The Expert Committee appointed by the UGC looked into all the pertinent questions. This was followed by the framing of the Core Module Syllabus for Environmental Studies for undergraduate courses for all branches of Higher Education. This book is the result of this initiative.
    This book is freely available to download form UGC website 

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    Atropisomers

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      IUPAC Atropisomers is defined as following A subclass of conformers which can be isolated as separate chemical species and which arise from restricted rotation about a single bond, e.g. ortho-substituted biphenyl, 1,1,2,2-tetra-tert-butylethane. The word atropisomer is derived from the Greek a, meaning not, and tropos, meaning turn. The name was coined by Kuhn in 1933, but atropisomerism was first detected in 6,6’-dinitro-2,2’-diphenic acid by Cristie in 1922. References:

    1. PAC, 1996, 68, 2193 (Basic terminology of stereochemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 1996)) on page 2200
    2. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/328/5983/1251
    3. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja109165f
    4. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja109164t
    5. Wiki Article
    6. axial chirality